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The Agreement recalls the parties' shared respect for democracy and human rights, political and economic freedom and commitment to international peace and security.
An important aspect of Russia's relations with the West is the criticism of Russia's political system and human rights management including LGBT rights , media freedom , and reports about killed journalists by Western governments, the mass media and the leading democracy and human rights watchdogs.
In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.
The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States.
The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies".
There are also three independent arms of service: As of [update] , the military comprised over 1 million active duty personnel, the fifth largest in the world.
Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines , and the only modern strategic bomber force outside the United States.
The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry , producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported.
In —14, Russia delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine. The Russian government's official military budget is about 2.
The official budget is set to rise to 3. According to the Constitution , the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects ,  including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol.
These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts , each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.
Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.
Russia's territorial expansion was achieved largely in the late 16th century under the Cossack Yermak Timofeyevich during the reign of Ivan the Terrible , at a time when competing city-states in the western regions of Russia had banded together to form one country.
Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols , defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum.
Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.
The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones. Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast.
The Ural Mountains , rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia.
Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources.
Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water. Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources.
Of the country's , rivers,  the Volga is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe , but also because of its major role in Russian history.
The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate , which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest.
Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.
Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate. The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi , possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters.
In many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons.
Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate.
Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.
Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east.
Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia. From north to south the East European Plain , also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra , coniferous forest taiga , mixed and broad-leaf forests , grassland steppe , and semi-desert fringing the Caspian Sea , as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate.
Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves ,  known as "the lungs of Europe",  second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.
There are mammal species and bird species in Russia. A total of animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of and are now protected.
Russia has an upper-middle income mixed economy  with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.
Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia.
The country ended with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas.
A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.
The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a very large share of the country's GDP.
The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that "[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with.
The Russian central bank announced plans in to free float the Russian ruble in However, the Russian economy began stagnating in late and in combination with the War in Donbass is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation.
The recent decline in the Russian ruble has increased the costs for Russian companies to make interest payments on debt issued in U.
There are many different estimates of the actual cost of corruption. In the s, businessmen had to pay different criminal groups to provide a " krysha " literally, a "roof", i.
Nowadays, this "protective" function is performed by officials. In the end, the Russian population pays for this corruption. Putin's system is remarkable for its ubiquitous and open merging of the civil service and business, as well as its use of relatives, friends, and acquaintances to benefit from budgetary expenditures and take over state property.
Corporate, property, and land raiding is commonplace. On March 26, , protests against alleged corruption in the federal Russian government took place simultaneously in many cities across the country.
This restoration of agriculture was supported by a credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms that once were Soviet kolkhozes and which still own the significant share of agricultural land.
Since Russia borders three oceans the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific , Russian fishing fleets are a major world fish supplier. Russia captured 3,, tons of fish in Sprawling from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, Russia has more than a fifth of the world's forests, which makes it the largest forest country in the world.
In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower. Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world  and the 5th largest renewable energy producer , the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country.
The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations; however, the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.
Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant. Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer ,  with all nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom State Corporation.
The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current In May on a two-day trip to Shanghai, President Putin signed a deal on behalf of Gazprom for the Russian energy giant to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year.
Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly. The company accounts for over 3. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers.
Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas", because of its waterway connections to the Baltic, White , Caspian, Azov and Black Seas.
In the country owned 1, merchant marine ships. The world's only fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route between Europe and East Asia.
By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Russia has 1, airports,  the busiest being Sheremetyevo , Domodedovo , and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St.
Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram.
The total length of metros in Russia is Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in and respectively.
These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and some of them are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition in Russian metros and railways.
Science and technology in Russia blossomed since the Age of Enlightenment , when Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University , and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov established the Moscow State University , paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation.
In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors. The Russian physics school began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law.
Russian discoveries and inventions in physics include the electric arc , electrodynamical Lenz's law , space groups of crystals , photoelectric cell , superfluidity , Cherenkov radiation , electron paramagnetic resonance , heterotransistors and 3D holography.
Lasers and masers were co-invented by Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov , while the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion was introduced by Igor Tamm , Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich , leading eventually the modern international ITER project, where Russia is a party.
Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky the " Copernicus of Geometry " who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev , the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential in the world.
In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as Andrey Kolmogorov , Israel Gelfand , and Sergey Sobolev , made major contributions to various areas of mathematics.
Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table , the main framework of modern chemistry. Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure , playing a central role in organic chemistry.
Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning , and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics.
Russian inventions include arc welding by Nikolay Benardos , further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov , Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers.
Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute , while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lighting , and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today.
Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber. The first ternary computer , Setun , was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov.
In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers , inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky , Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs Construction Bureaus that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation.
Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu -series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi -series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history.
With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production.
The crisis of the s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia.
In the s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev formulated top priorities for the country's technological development:. The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant in the world.
Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky , the father of theoretical astronautics.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union , some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified.
Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher. Roscosmos is also developing the Federation spacecraft, to replace the aging Soyuz, it could also take potential crewed mission to lunar orbit as early as In Russia, approximately 70 per cent of drinking water comes from surface water and 30 per cent from groundwater.
In , water supply systems had a total capacity of 90 million cubic metres a day. The average residential water use was litres per capita per day.
The water utilities sector is one of the largest industries in Russia serving the entire Russian population.
In all, different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders. Russia's population peaked at ,, in , just before the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mids. In , Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10, According to the Census, Russia's birth rate is higher than that of most European countries In , in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".
Russia recorded 1,, births, the highest number since , and even exceeding annual births during the period —, with a TFR of about 1.
Vital statistics table below. In August , as the country saw its first demographic growth since the s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach million by , mainly as a result of immigration.
Russia is a multi-national state with over ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions e.
Russian Cossack family in Siberia. Yakuts in Sakha Republic. Northern Caucasus folk costumes: Russia's ethnic groups speak some languages.
Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout the country. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken Slavic language.
Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English,  one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station  and is one of the six official languages of the UN.
Russians have practised Orthodox Christianity since the 10th century. According to the historical traditions of the Orthodox Church, Christianity was first brought to the territory of modern Belarus , Russia and Ukraine by Saint Andrew , the first Apostle of Jesus Christ.
The latter events are traditionally referred to as the "baptism of Rus'" Russian: Much of the Russian population, like other Slavic peoples, preserved for centuries a double belief dvoeverie in both indigenous religion and Orthodox Christianity.
At the time of the Revolution , the Russian Orthodox Church was deeply integrated into the autocratic state , enjoying official status. This was a significant factor that contributed to the Bolshevik attitude to religion and the steps they took to control it.
Bolsheviks consisted of many people with non-Russian, Communist Russians and influential Jewish backgrounds such as Vladimir Lenin , Leon Trotsky , Grigory Zinoviev , Lev Kamenev , Grigori Sokolnikov who were indifferent towards Christianity and based on the writings of German philosopher Karl Marx with Marxism—Leninism as an ideology went on to form the Communist party.
Thus the USSR became one of the first communist states to proclaim, as an ideological objective, the elimination of religion  and its replacement with universal atheism.
State atheism in the Soviet Union was known in Russian as gosateizm ,  and was based on the ideology of Marxism—Leninism.
Marxist—Leninist Atheism has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and elimination of religion. Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from to , 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1, priests were killed.
Many more were persecuted. Currently, there is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only.
In the research organization Sreda published Arena Atlas, a detailed enumeration of religious populations and nationalities in Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey.
They found that These findings are in line with Pew Research Center 's estimate that Orthodox Christianity, Islam , Judaism , Buddhism , and ethnic religions are recognised as Russia's traditional religions, marking the country's "historical heritage".
Traced back to the Christianization of Kievan Rus' in the 10th century, Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country; smaller Christian denominations such as Catholics, Armenian Gregorians and various Protestant churches also exist.
The Russian Orthodox Church was the country's state religion prior to the Revolution and remains the largest religious body in the country.
Easter is the most popular religious holiday in Russia, celebrated by a large segment of the Russian population, including large numbers of those who are non-religious.
More than three-quarters of the Russian population celebrate Easter by making traditional Easter cakes, coloured eggs and paskha.
Islam is the second largest religion in Russia after Russian Orthodoxy. Buddhism is traditional in three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia , Tuva , and Kalmykia.
In cultural and social affairs Vladimir Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow , head of the Church, endorsed his election in Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state.
On April 26, , for the first time, The U. Commission on International Religious Freedom classified Russia as one of the world's worst violators of religious liberty, recommending in its annual report that the U.
The report states, "—it is the sole state to have not only continually intensified its repression of religious freedom since USCIRF commenced monitoring it, but also to have expanded its repressive policies The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens.
Due to the ongoing Russian financial crisis since , major cuts in health spending have resulted in a decline in the quality of service of the state healthcare system.
Waiting times for treatment have increased, and patients have been forced to pay for more services that were previously free.
As of [update] , the average life expectancy in Russia was Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime.
Since , the year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free.
University level education is free, with exceptions. A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years.
In the s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding.
There are over different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture.
Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes.
The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus.
Russian cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye , wheat, barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks.
Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka.
Smetana a heavy sour cream is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively.
Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls golubtsy usually filled with meat. Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions regarding folk music.
Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika , and garmoshka. Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , like Melnitsa.
Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles.
Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko Ilya Muromets , Sadko and Aleksandr Rou Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful.
Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.
Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture.
Apart from fortifications kremlins , the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes , often gilded or brightly painted.
Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral.
After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe.
The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.
The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles.
Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style. With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation was broken.
Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the s.
A new anti-religious campaign, launched in , coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.
In Moscow alone losses of — are estimated at over notable buildings including to listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3, — some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.
In , a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture,  and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture.
This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles.
In Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down mostly in rural areas and many were demolished.
Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in , only sixteen remained by ; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in , thirty were closed and six demolished.
Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.
The Russian Academy of Arts was created in  and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting.
In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.
In the midth century the Peredvizhniki Wanderers group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.
Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II.
The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel , Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , and Nicholas Roerich. The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately to The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism , suprematism , constructivism , rayonism , and Russian Futurism.
Since the s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism.
Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War. Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country.
Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina , Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny. Music in 19th-century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful , who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins , which was musically conservative.
The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era , was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.
Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes ' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.
Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal , and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava.
Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.
In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment , the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin.
By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history.
This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry , began with Alexander Pushkin , who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".
Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time. By the s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres.
The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry , when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism.
Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , who insisted on developing Russia as a unique civilization.
The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas.
Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev , Sergei Bulgakov , and Vladimir Vernadsky. Following the Russian Revolution of many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev , while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state.
In the s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. In the late s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the s and s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines.
Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following , resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein.
Dziga Vertov , whose kino-glaz "film-eye" theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism.
The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier.
The s and s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov 's and Leonid Gaidai 's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today.
In —68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar -winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace , which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.
Russian animation dates back to late Russian Empire times. During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer. Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano , Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky.
The late s and s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced.
The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival.
Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation.
While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared.
Censorship and Media freedom in Russia has always been a main theme of Russian media. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics.
The Russians drafted the new ones, so they determined their own re-entry rules and the power to interpret them. They have all the discretion and escapes.
Wada has lost leverage. US Anti-Doping Agency Usada head Travis Tygart said Wada's decision to reinstate Rusada is "bewildering and inexplicable" and a "devastating blow to the world's clean athletes".
Russia is suspended from International Paralympic Committee IPC events and also from athletics, although some have been allowed to compete as neutrals in international competition after proving their anti-doping credentials.
IPC president Andrew Parsons said that they will assess whether Wada's decision addresses two of the final three remaining reinstatement criteria related to the Russian Paralympic Committee suspension and once recommendations are made, the IPC governing board will convene to determine whether to lift the RPC's suspension.
However, in a joint statement with the IPC Athletes Council, he said that he did not expect the task force to provide any recommendations to the board until the criterion related to the IPC's reimbursement costs associated with the suspension is satisfied.
We will continue to rely on the taskforce and our clear roadmap for their reinstatement until we are satisfied that the conditions have been met.
Russia reinstated by Wada after doping scandal suspension. I öster avgränsas det av kusten till Stilla havet och i norr av den till Norra ishavet.
Detta är landets rikaste region. I övriga delar av landet är det mindre extremt: Allra sydligaste Ryssland, vid Svarta havs - kusten har subtropiskt klimat.
Av dessa listas växter i landets röda lista De flesta djur som lever i Ryssland hittas även i andra delar av den tempererade och den arktiska regionen.
Efter Sovjetunionens upplösning omvandlades den tidigare centralplanerade, resursslösande och ineffektiva produktionen till en modern marknadsekonomi.
I slutet av talet föll Rysslands statsfinanser samman. Samtidigt genomfördes en serie nya reformer för att stärka landets marknadsekonomi, reglerna för företag förenklades liksom skattelagstiftingen.
Detta kom att leda till att statsbudgeten började visa överskott. Europeiska unionen och Världsbanken har dock inlett projekt för att försöka bygga upp ett mer oberoende banksystem.
Detta underlättade handeln betydligt för Ryssland som till större del öppnades upp för omvärlden. Efter att Sovjetunionen upplöstes övertog Ryssland den största delen av Sovjetunionens internationella förpliktelser.
Till exempel övertog Ryssland Sovjetunionens permanenta plats i FN: Relationen till USA är ansträngd och parterna ses ofta ta motsatta parters sidor vid konflikter.
Rysslands relation med EU är i stora drag god men även tidvis problematisk. I slutet av bröt en konflikt mellan Ryssland och Ukraina ut vilket har skapat en oroande stämning över stora delar av världen och Ryssland har kritiserats för sina ageranden.
Ryssland är ett av de länder i världen som har längst järnvägsnät , Järnvägen drivs av Rysslands järnvägar. Den rysk-ortodoxa kyrkan är landets dominerande kyrka.
Andra konfessioner är bland annat islam , protestantism , katolicism , buddhism , Jehovas vittnen och judendom. Ryssland har ett mycket rikt kulturarv med berömd konst , musik , arkitektur och litteratur.
Den ortodoxa kyrkan , som bidrog till att sprida den bysantinska kulturen till de slaviska folken , förknippas med sina kyrkor och ikoner ofta med Ryssland.
I Ryssland är nationalskalden Aleksandr Pusjkin den kanske mest populäre författaren, medan Lev Tolstoj och Fjodor Dostojevskij är mer internationellt kända.
Se vidare rysk musik. Den stora dagliga affärsnyhetstidningen Kommersant fick en ny chefredaktör för en av sina sidotidningar, efter Putin -kritisk bevakning i samband med parlamentsvalet.
Man gjorde det med hänvisning till "Lugovoj-lagen" införd 1 februari , en lag riktad mot medier som manar till "oauktoriserade protester".
November meddelade Kremls bibliotek att man planerade en "alternativ Wikipedia". Sedan har myndigheterna under perioder öppnat delar av tidigare hemliga ryska arkiv för allmänheten.
Arbetets dag har minskat i betydelse efter Sovjetunionens upplösning. De populäraste sporterna i Ryssland är fotboll och ishockey. Ryssland tilldelades även Världsmästerskapet i fotboll